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Computer - Generations - English

Computer - Generations


Generation in computer terminology is a change in technology a computer is/was being used. Initially, the generation term was used to distinguish between varying hardware technologies. Nowadays, generation includes both hardware and software, which together make up an entire computer system.
There are five computer generations known till date. Each generation has been discussed in detail along with their time period and characteristics. In the following table, approximate dates against each generation has been mentioned, which are normally accepted.
Following are the main five generations of computers.




1. First Generation (1940-1956): - Vacuum Tubes

In the first generation computers, the first vacuum tube was used. Because of these vacuum tubes these computers had become very big due to these computers. The size of the room was bigger than them. Due to the large size of computer, these computers used to have a lot of power to run.These vacuum tubes produced a lot of heat and the possibility of broken feet of these vacuum tubes was high. The first generation computer did not have an operating system. In these computers, the program was stored in a device called Punchard. The ability to calculate in these computers was very low. The ability to store data in these computers was very limited. Machine computers were used in these computers;
UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are the first generation computer machines, which was created in 1945. The weight of the ENIAC computer was around 30 tonnes. 18000 in Vacuum tubes, 1500 relays, thousands of registries and capitors were used. 200 KW of electricity was used in its operation. Univec was considered to be the first Comercial Computer. Which was used for the American Census in 1951.



Second generation (1956-1963): - Transistor used 
in 1947, with the discovery of the transistor, a revolution in the computer age was added. Now the transistor in place of vacuum tube was used in the computer. The transistor's size was much smaller than the vacuum tube. Because of which these work would have been occupied. These were cheap compared to vacuum tubes. And the work capacity of the transistor was also high.They used to produce less heat. Using their computer, the size of the computer was much smaller than the first generation of computers. These computers would require less power to run. These computers were much faster than the first generation. The magnetic core was used instead of the magnetic drum for storage in these computers. In computers, magnetic tape and disk were used to replace the punchcard for secondary storage. In this generation, FORTRAN, 



Third Generation (1964-1971): -  ICs (Integrated Circuit) integrated circuit (Integrated Circuit) or with the development of IC was born the third generation of the modern computer. In these computers, the transistor was replaced by the Integrated Circuit (IC). IC is a stored form of many transistors, registers and keptists, in which a micro device is collected by collecting lots of registers, registers and keptostos. IC is made from silicon substance, it contains substances like iron, aluminum, potassium, which increase its functioning several times. I C With the use of modern computers, it came out of a room and came to a table. That is, the computer's appearance was reduced. In this generation computers, the operating system was now being used. Due to which the computer became much faster and its internal functions were automated. At the same time, the development of new languages ​​began to develop in high level languages ​​such as BASIC whose full name (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Was there. In this generation only the mini-computer was developed which was very small of the old computer. It was very easy to create and save documents in these computers. Fourth generation - (1971 to date) - Present: Microprocessors  The first microprocessor was invented in 1970. Along with the creation of a microprocessor, a huge revolutionary change has happened in the computer age now. The location of the microprocessor was taken. A microprocessor named MicroProcessor, named after the Large Scale Integrated Circuit, was named as Microprocessor, made from millions of transistors, which were micro-contained in a small chip encompassing millions of transistors. The computer built using microprocessor was called a microcomputer. The world's first microcomputer was created by the famous company MITS. 



  




The way of the microprocessor's invention cleared further by looking at the integrated circuit IC. Before the microprocessor was invented, the CPU was created by adding several different electronic devices. 
Today Intel and AMD companies that make two big microprocessors in the world.  
Bani memory was now being used in this generation by the core memory space semiconductor material. Which was very small in the shape and its speed was very fast. In this generation, simple software was started to work in database now 

Fifth generation - (present): -  Artificial Intelligence

The fifth generation computer is based on very developed and artificial intelligence (Artificial Intelligence) technology. The capacity of this generation is being developed in its own capacity.Computer is now being developed to work in all types of fields. Today's computers are connected to the network through internet for exchange of information. Today the size of the computer is getting smaller every day. Today, the computer has come up from the table and comes to the palm of the man. And the name of computer is given in the name of the computer.Eg - desk top, lap top, palm top etc.  
Today, some computer science colleges are producing computers that behave like human beings.Where the robot goes 
Multimedia technology was also created in generation, which mainly consists of graphics, sound, and animation. 

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