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History of Computer - English

History of Computer - English 


Worldwide search now empty until it was found that on the basis of known sources and use the first certified mention composed by India's ancient famous astronomer and mathematician Arybtrt articles in their mathematical astronomy treatise "Arybtrtiy" number system The specific signs of zero are first found in the first volume of their zeros only, since then only the numbers have the words The trend of displaying in the form of two started.



In an Indian writer named Pingala (200 BC) verses, you had developed a mathematical system developed by Aryabhatta to describe the scriptures, and the first two system based Binary Number System (0,1) was known. Details were presented. These magical numbers (0 and 1) were used primarily for the first computer structure.

Today's computer term has been used since the beginning of modern computers. In the first case, the person who operated the machines used to solve complex calculations was called the "computer". The question of such arithmetic arithmetic that was difficult and more time consuming. In order to solve these problems, various modifications and improvements have been made in these machines along with the invention of specific types of machines. This was the initial sequence of modern computer inventions when it got the present form of modern computers.

Circa 3000 B.C. A bizarre device used to calculate the name ABACUS is mentioned, it is believed that this device was invented in China. There were several rods in the ABACUS salt machine, with the formation of the shape of some shells. Through which the work of adding and subtracting was done. But the work of multiplication and division could not be done through these abacus. This is also a part of the computer development order. |



The time between 1600 AD to the 1970s is considered very important in the development of the computer. During which many inventions were related to computer development. Which is as follows. 

(1) In  1622 CE, the great expert William Goghartad created an instrument known as "Slide Rule". 
(2) In  1642 CE, the great scientist Blaz Pascal created a "Pascalin" salt instrument by which the linking and event could be done. 




(3) Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner Or Stepped Reckoner: 
- L672 E 0 Gotfriad Wilhelm Laibnijh (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz) added which produced a calculator machine called salt scientific Nenlaibnijh step Reconr (Leibniz Step Reckoner or Stepped Reckoner) , subtract, multiply and It was possible to do all kinds of calculations. 
(4) Difference 
Engine: - L822 E built the famous scientist Charles Babbage worked a bizarre strange machine "Difrenshial engine" 0 and 1837 Full caused by a machine "Analytical Ingin" the lack of which they money was invented in AD 0 Were not able to. It is believed that since then the modern computer had begun. So where does the scientific "Charles Babbage" go to "the father of a modern computer"? 


(5) Konrad Zuse - Zuse-Z3 Machine  
In 1941 AD, the great scientist "Konard Jus" invented a wonderful device called "Zuse-Z3" salt which is used to calculate the two-base arithmetic and floating point arithmetic calculations (Floating point Arithmetic) was the first electronic computer. 


(6) Eniac: - 
In 1946 a military booth in the United States created "ENIAC" (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) salt machine. Which was based on the Decimal Arithmetic system structure, this machine was first released as a computer first, which later developed into a modern computer and the basis of the development of modern computers. 



(7) Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine In the  
year 1948, the first computer called Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine was created which could save any program in Vaccum Tube. 


1. First Generation (1940-1956): - Vacuum Tubes
In the first generation computers, the first vacuum tube was used. Because of these vacuum tubes these computers had become very big due to these computers. The size of the room was bigger than them. Due to the large size of computer, these computers used to have a lot of power to run.These vacuum tubes produced a lot of heat and the possibility of broken feet of these vacuum tubes was high. The first generation computer did not have an operating system. In these computers, the program was stored in a device called Punchard. The ability to calculate in these computers was very low. The ability to store data in these computers was very limited. Machine computers were used in these computers;
UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are the first generation computer machines, which was created in 1945. The weight of the ENIAC computer was around 30 tonnes. 18000 in Vacuum tubes, 1500 relays, thousands of registries and capitors were used. 200 KW of electricity was used in its operation. Univec was considered to be the first Comercial Computer. Which was used for the American Census in 1951.



Second generation (1956-1963): - Transistor used 
in 1947, with the discovery of the transistor, a revolution in the computer age was added. Now the transistor in place of vacuum tube was used in the computer. The transistor's size was much smaller than the vacuum tube. Because of which these work would have been occupied. These were cheap compared to vacuum tubes. And the work capacity of the transistor was also high.They used to produce less heat. Using their computer, the size of the computer was much smaller than the first generation of computers. These computers would require less power to run. These computers were much faster than the first generation. The magnetic core was used instead of the magnetic drum for storage in these computers. In computers, magnetic tape and disk were used to replace the punchcard for secondary storage. In this generation, FORTRAN, 



Third Generation (1964-1971): -  ICs (Integrated Circuit) integrated circuit (Integrated Circuit) or with the development of IC was born the third generation of the modern computer. In these computers, the transistor was replaced by the Integrated Circuit (IC). IC is a stored form of many transistors, registers and keptists, in which a micro device is collected by collecting lots of registers, registers and keptostos. IC is made from silicon substance, it contains substances like iron, aluminum, potassium, which increase its functioning several times. I C With the use of modern computers, it came out of a room and came to a table. That is, the computer's appearance was reduced. In this generation computers, the operating system was now being used. Due to which the computer became much faster and its internal functions were automated. At the same time, the development of new languages ​​began to develop in high level languages ​​such as BASIC whose full name (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Was there. In this generation only the mini-computer was developed which was very small of the old computer. It was very easy to create and save documents in these computers. Fourth generation - (1971 to date) - Present: Microprocessors  The first microprocessor was invented in 1970. Along with the creation of a microprocessor, a huge revolutionary change has happened in the computer age now. The location of the microprocessor was taken. A microprocessor named MicroProcessor, named after the Large Scale Integrated Circuit, was named as Microprocessor, made from millions of transistors, which were micro-contained in a small chip encompassing millions of transistors. The computer built using microprocessor was called a microcomputer. The world's first microcomputer was created by the famous company MITS. 



  




The way of the microprocessor's invention cleared further by looking at the integrated circuit IC. Before the microprocessor was invented, the CPU was created by adding several different electronic devices. 
Today Intel and AMD companies that make two big microprocessors in the world.  
Bani memory was now being used in this generation by the core memory space semiconductor material. Which was very small in the shape and its speed was very fast. In this generation, simple software was started to work in database now 

Fifth generation - (present): -  Artificial Intelligence

The fifth generation computer is based on very developed and artificial intelligence (Artificial Intelligence) technology. The capacity of this generation is being developed in its own capacity.Computer is now being developed to work in all types of fields. Today's computers are connected to the network through internet for exchange of information. Today the size of the computer is getting smaller every day. Today, the computer has come up from the table and comes to the palm of the man. And the name of computer is given in the name of the computer.Eg - desk top, lap top, palm top etc.  
Today, some computer science colleges are producing computers that behave like human beings.Where the robot goes 
Multimedia technology was also created in generation, which mainly consists of graphics, sound, and animation. 

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